Preparing the soil to create a healthy garden is more complex than choosing a site and digging holes to plant. First, you need to choose a location with good sun exposure, good drainage, and no root systems. Next, you need to test the soil to determine its sand and clay content. It’s also a good idea to take a sample to a garden center to check the pH level and nutrient concentrations. Then you will remove the earth, removing the rocks and roots. Lastly, you’ll need to add organic matter, and soil amendments (such as clay and sand), and flatten the entire ground before planting.
Dig the earth with a shovel and take a handful of it. See what it is made of. It could be sandy, rich in clay, or just infertile soil. If it contains a lot of sand or clay, garden plants will not grow very well.
For best results, take a sample of the soil to a garden store to determine what nutrients it lacks and what its pH level is. You can also buy a home test kit, but it won’t be very accurate.
When you are going to plant a garden for the first time (especially if you are doing it in early spring), you should wait until it has dried out sufficiently. If you squeeze a handful of it and it stays compact, it’s still very wet.
Before you start digging, decide on the size and shape of the garden. If you will have more than 3 rows, be sure to consider extra walking space between each row. In the case of only 2 rows, you can take care of the garden from the outside of each row.
Use a shovel to remove any grass, moss, or weeds that are growing in the area where you plan to create your garden. Make sure you dig deep enough to remove the weeds at the root. You can go about 4 inches (10 cm) deep for this step.
For new plots, you should remove them to a depth of 12 to 18 inches (30 to 45 cm). First, dig to that depth with a shovel and then give the plot a second pass with a cultivator to break it up.
Soil pH is one of the most important aspects of maintaining healthy soil that produces healthy plants. Be sure to use the information obtained when evaluating the land. Lime increases the pH level if it is too low, while sulfur lowers it if the pH is too high. 
When you check and have your soil composition tested, you’ll find out if you need to add sand, clay, or another topsoil to make it the best possible mix for your garden. This is something a garden center can be incredibly helpful for.
Since you’ve added various materials to it, you want to make sure that everything is mixed evenly. This might require you to go through the entire garden plot 2 or 3 times.
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